図1 WatervlietのSawmill




(“Are they going to send you away?”
“I think not. They say I am to help with the new sawmill they are building up the creek.”)

(The sawmill was a highly profitable enterprise.)


シェーカーは全員、何らかの仕事につくことが定められている。マザー・アンが説いた “Give your hands to work and your hearts to God”(あなたの手を仕事に、あなたの心を神に捧げなさい)という言葉にも現れているように、シェーカー教にとって労働は、日常的にも精神的にも非常に大きな比重を占める活動である。シェーカーがなぜ労働を重要視していたのかについて、Art of Shakerにはこのような記述が見られる。

 They believed that labor worked a positive influence on individuals, in part by keeping them too busy to think about physical needs. In a practical sense, the prosperity of each village depended on the labor of all capable hands for the well-being of the entire community. (Julie Nicoletta『The Architecture of the Shakers』p107. より

図2 労働するシェーカー

シェーカーは働くことを生活の核としていたため、部外者に労働を任せた結果として衰退したことを指摘するような意見も存在している。下記の引用はThe Architecture of the Shakersからのものである。このことから、シェーカーの労働倫理は共同体の活動そのものを支えていたことがわかる。

 As the Shakers grew to rely more on hired help, they lost hold of this work ethic. Often hired help and their families lived with the Shakers, bringing their worldly ways into the community and in direct contact with the brothers and sisters. Furthermore, as the majority of Shakers grew older, they became accustomed to working less and relying more on the labor provided by hired hands. This dependence on people of the world no doubt contributed to the decline of Shakerism in the late nineteenth century by de-emphasizing the significance of work as part of the Shaker religion. (Julie Nicoletta『The Architecture of the Shakers』p.108  より


シェーカー教には様々なMill(製作所)があり、その中でも素材を加工する場所はSawmill(製材所)と呼ばれていた。製材所はシェーカーが労働をする上で重要な施設である。彼らは製材所で木材を切り出し、加工することで、建築や発明品など、彼らの生活の根底をなすものの基盤となる素材を作り出していた。製材所については、The Architecture of the Shakersにこのような記述がある。

 Like the grist mills, Shaker saw mills provided the means to process lumber for the Shakers’ own building and carpentry projects as well as bringing in money from nearby non-Shakers who needed lumber sawn. Every village had at least one saw mill; larger villages often had more. Until the late nineteenth century, the Shakers brought timber from their own forests as far away as Michigan, and sawed and planed it in their own mills. Without the capacity to produce their own building lumber, the Shakers would have had to spend more money on the many ongoing construction projects for dwellings, shops, and other buildings. The number and type of workshop could vary greatly from one village to another.  (Julie Nicoletta『The Architecture of the Shakers』p.107  より)

図3 Union Villageのmill




図4 シェーカーの丸鋸

Shaker modified circular table saw, water powered.  The table top, to which a fence is attached, is removable. Underneath this top is another top with a T-square bevel. This original top was hinged to bench on the right side.  Hinges were removed to accommodate two devices to raise and lower front of the table. In the rear, there is yet a later added mechanism for finer adjustments to table raising. (Shaker Museumより)


図5 シェーカーの鋸

Cast steel blade and back, open handle of beech. Two copper rivets and burrs secure handle to clade. Blade is tapered. (Shaker Museumより
鋳鋼で造られた刃、ブナ製のオープンハンドル。 2つの銅製リベットとバリが、ハンドルをクレードに固定している。刃は先細った形になっている。


図6 シェーカーの剪定鋸

 Iron head fashioned with chisel blade at end, a hook on one side and two prongs on other into which a saw blade is set (pinned at lower end and bolted at upper end). (Shaker Museumより


図7 シェーカーの鉋

 Plane body of beech; depth stop, knicker wedge and iron wedge of maple. One slanting blade and one straight up blade in the front. (Shaker Museumより)
ブナによって造られた土台、カエデ製のデプス・ストップ、ニッカーウェッジ、アイアンウェッジ。鋼正面に傾斜刃1枚と直立刃1枚があり、 「Stothert、Bath、D.R.6 / 8」と刻印されている。


シェーカーにはSawmill(製材所)以外にも様々なMill(製作所)がある。粉をひくためのGrist millや、衣服を製作するためのClothier’ mill、水を汲み上げるためのPump millなどがその代表例である。シェーカーはそれぞれのMillを用途ごとに使い分けていた。

図8  Grist Mill, PleasantHill (1952)

図9 Grist Mill, Hancock, 年代不詳





David R. Starbuck『The Shaker Mills in Canterbury, New Hampshire』, Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology
Vol. 12, No. 1 (1986), pp. 11-38 (28 pages)
Scott T. Swank『Shaker Life, Art, and Architecture』Abbeville Press, 1999
Stephen Paterwic『Historical Dictioonary of the Shakers』 Rowman & Littlefi eld Publishers, 2017
Priscilla J. Brewer『 Shaker Communities, Shaker Lives』Univ Pr of New England; Reprint edition, 1988
Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/collection/shaker-dress-plain-comfortable-economical-comely/practicality/)
最終閲覧   2021/07/23


図1 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図2 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図3 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図4 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図5 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図6 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図7 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図8 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)
図9 Shaker Museum (https://www.shakermuseum.us/object/?id=18634&limit=24&offset=0&sort=name_ref&q=working)